School psychologists are uniquely qualified members of school teams that support students' ability to learn and teachers' ability to teach. They apply expertise in mental health, learning, and behavior, to help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally.
In Davis School district there is a School Psychologist at each school
- ADHD/Executive Functioning
- Early Childhood
- Referral Process
- Social Skills
- Traumatic Brain Injury
"A [Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD)] is not a sign of poor intelligence or laziness or the result of impaired hearing or vision. Children and adults with SLD have a neurological disorder that causes their brains to process and interpret information differently."
Specific Learning Disabilities has many different names. Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) can be identified in any of the following areas:
- oral expression
- listening comprehension
- written expression
- basic reading skills
- reading fluency skills
- reading comprehension
- mathematics calculation
- mathematics problem solving
SLD is an educational classification that is comparable to the DSM-V diagnosis of Dyslexia (formerly Reading Disorder), Dyscalculia (fomerly Mathematics Disorder), and Dysgraphia (formerly Written Expression Disorder).
Dyslexia is the most well known of the learning disabilities, and, in accordance with federal law, schools and special education refer to it as Specific Learning Disability--basic reading skills, reading fluency skills, or reading comprehension.
Executive Functioning can be explained in many different ways. It is a broad term used to describe many cognitive functions with the purpose of regulating behavior, which can include emotional regulation, organization, planning, memory, and more. Executive functioning expert Russell Barkley has stated "we can think of the executive functions simply as those capacities for self-control that allow us to sustain action for problem solving toward a goal. So it's goal-directed problem solving and goal-directed persistence."
Dr. Barkley further stated "the latest thinking on ADHD [or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] includes the topic of executive functioning being related to ADHD, and possibly actually being the core functions or deficits in the disorder." Five executive functions that appear to be implicated in ADHD are:
- Inhibit Your Behavior,
- Use Visual Imagery,
- Talk to Yourself in the Form of Self-Guidance,
- Control Your Emotions, and
- Plan and Problem Solve.
Peg Dawson, Richard Guare - www.smartbutscatteredkids.com
As a parent, you may cringe at the thought that your perfect child could ever a mental health problem. Don't worry. That is normal. What's even more normal is for children to show some levels anxiety and depression--requiring some help--yet not actually having a full blown Anxiety Disorder or Depression.
Anxiety and Depression may actually manifest itself in simple ways that you have not considered. Here are some common examples:
- hesitancy or refusal to go to school
- nervousness in new situations
- unwillingness to leave your side
- feeling alone
- not interested in playing games
- unusually moody or emotional
"Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors."
There is a social stigma that accompanies Autism like no other childhood diagnosis. Autism is commonly identified in childhood, and typically has better treatment outcomes when found early in an individuals life. While many aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorder are still not understood, there are many treatment recommendations that have shown positive results. One of the most researched teaching method for autism is Discrete Trial Training (DTT), which is part of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy.
|The DTT teaching strategy involves:
Every parent would rather not get the phone from the school about how their child got into trouble at recess, and hit Suzy in line, and called someone a name, and on and on and on. Of course, life would be easier if verbal or physical aggression were not a defining characteristic of childhood. At this point you might be saying, "Yes! Where do I sign up? What can I do." We wish it was that easy.
There is not easy answer for dealing with behavior problems, but the good news is that there are effective strategies for helping--it just won't be quick or easy. On this page you will find resources for behavior. Enjoy!
The Please-Want-Need method
This strategy really helps with limiting parent frustration when their child is being non-compliant (AKA naughty, trouble maker, or disobedient). Instead of getting into a power struggle, this strategy uses a healthy dose of ignoring while still being the parent. Here it goes:
- When you want your child to do something (for example, get started on their homework), say to them "Please, get started on your homework" or "Alright, please turn off the TV and get started on today's homework." The Key word is Please.
- Once you have given the instruction, walk away and do something else (like deal with your other child). After 2 minutes, come back and see what has happened. If your child has started their homework, then awesome your work is done. If they are starting to move, then tell them thanks for following directions. But if they haven't say "I want you to start your homework." Walk away again and come back 2 minutes later. Key word in the second phrase is Want.
- After 2 minutes have passed, come back and see what has happened. If they still have yet to engage in their homework then say "I need you to start your homework, or (insert consequence)." Key word is Need. Leave room for 2 minutes.
- If they still have not engaged in their homework, then give consequence.
Believe it or not, this strategy usually negates the arguing between parents and children, and, while it may take longer than forcing them to turn off the TV, you are teaching them task initiation skills and building a very positive relationship with them.
- PBISworld.com --Breaks down behaviors into multiple areas, then gives ideas for interventions
- Free Behavior Tracking Forms and Charts -
- Davis District Data Tracking Tools
- Intervention Central Behavior Interventions
- Teaching self-control skills
- Dealing with Temper Tantrums
- Diffusing Violent Behaviors
- Name Calling and Teasing
- Information on Bullies and Victims
- Kids Against Bullying
- Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support
There are currently 13 categories under which a student is eligible for special education services:
- Developmental Delay
- Emotional Disturbance
- Hearing Impairment/Deafness
- Intellectual Disability
- Multiple Disabilities
- Orthopedic Impairment
- Other Health Impairment
- Specific Learning Disabilities
- Speech/Language Impairment
- Traumatic Brain Injury
- Visual Impairment (Including Blindness)
Knowledge is power when it comes to Special Education. The goal of Special Education is to help students access their grade-level curriculum. Qualifying for special education is based on three aspects:
- The child must have a disability
- The disability affects academic and functional performance
- The child needs individualized instruction
Not every child qualifies for special education. It is important that you consult your school with any questions concerning eligibility for special education.
INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PLAN
Students determined eligible for special education services will have a written Individualized Education Plan (IEP). This plan will include areas of focus, goals, accommodations, services required, and specify time lengths that they will receive such services.
For more information you may wish to reference the Special Education Rules handbook published by the Utah State Office of Education
Occasionally, a student may have an identified disability, it affects their academic and functional performance, yet they do not require specialized instruction. In this case an IEP is not necessary, but they may benefit from what is called a "504 plan."
What is 504 plan?
The "504" in "504 plan" refers to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act, which specifies that no one with a disability can be excluded from participating in federally funded programs or activities, including elementary, secondary or postsecondary schooling.
What is a disability in a 504 plan?
"Disability" in this context refers to a "physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities." This can include physical impairments; illnesses or injuries; communicable diseases; chronic conditions like asthma, allergies and diabetes; and learning problems. It does not necessarily require medical documentation; evidence of the impairment can come from other sources.
What is generally written in a 504 plan?
A 504 plan spells out the modifications and accommodations that will be needed for these students to have equal access as their non-disabled peers, and might include such things as wheelchair ramps, blood sugar monitoring, an extra set of textbooks, a peanut-free lunch environment, home instruction, or a tape recorder or keyboard for taking notes, etc.
Spanish Evaluation Descriptions in Alphabetical Order - for use in myIDEA: https://skydrive.live.com/redir?resid=1EF1ECF5951A993!135
Between divorce, loosing grandparents, other family members, or friends, and other traumas there are a myriad of events that affect a child or teenager on an emotional level. This is a topic that everyone hopes they will never have to deal with personally, which makes it even more important that we find positive and supportive ways to deal with these situations. Below you will find resources related to deal with grief, loss, and emotional turmoil.
3 years of age - Attends to key aspects of an object or situation. Attends to amount. Looks for casual mechanisms to figure out how they work.
4 years of age - Pays attention to special visual, auditory, tactile aspects of objects/situations. Attends to degree of difference (organizes by size, shape).
5 years of age - Attends to the orientation of objects, letters, pictures. Attends to long stories when read, especially w/pictures.
6 years of age - Maintains attention through complex problem solving. Attends stories without pictures.
3 years of age - Remembers visual landmarks and fingerplays. Uses fingers to count to aid memory. Sings simple songs and rhymes. Can remember events up to 18 months in the past.
4 years of age - Remembers 1 of several items shown and then hidden. Repeats 4 or more word sentences. Creates dramatic play based on pieces of remembers events/stories. Recalls 1-2 elements of a story that was just read.
5 years of age - Gives detailed descriptions of past events. Recite verses, short passages, songs. Retells the main events of an unfamiliar story. Is aware of strategies to help remember things, such as repeating words.
6 years of age - Uses several strategies to aid memory (repeats to self, leaves a clue to remind, organizes objects), remembers rules of board games, physical games. Remembers a large number of songs, details of books/movies.
3 years of age - Systematically takes objects apart. Understands "why" and "how" questions. Tries alternatives when 1st solution doesn't work. Talks about how to solve a problem while working on it. Can put together a 4-5 piece puzzle.
4 years of age - Puts things together. Organizes toys based on relationship to each other. Understands what to do in specific situations. Puts complex puzzles together (8-12 pieces). Categorizes by size, type, color, and shape.
5 years of age - Uses "rules" and understanding rather than perceptions to figure out how to solve problems.
6 years of age - Makes a plan to solve a problem, monitors progress toward a goal, changes approach as needed, and evaluates outcome. Uses literacy materials to solve a problem. Uses numerical reasoning to solve problems.
3 years of age - Realizes others' needs may be different from their own. May show signs of guild when he/she hurts another child. Can distinguish between happy emotions better than negative.
4 years of age - Describes own feelings. Is aware of peoples wants, feelings, and perceptions. Can differentiate others' point of view and own. Can do "if-then" with regards to others.
5 years of age - Considers others' thoughts, imagination, knowledge. Makes inferences about the motivation of others. Plans how to influence others' goals. Compares and negotiates ideas with others in play. Deceives or plays tricks on others.
6 years of age - Thinks about multiple characters; their actions, beliefs, and behaviors; and their influence on each other.
Complexity of play:
3 years of age - Likes to play with small items. Enjoys music, dance, and role playing. Acts out pretend play with others. Plays through a sequence of events in common routines.
4 years of age - Builds, constructs enclosures. Performs play rituals. Prefers play with peers to play with adults. Builds 3-D block structures. Plays group games.
5 years of age - Plays board games, but may change the rules. Has play rituals with peers. Creates elaborate socio-dramatic play. Makes costumes up. Likes chase games.
6 years of age - Creates and acts out own stories. Performs for others. Likes card and board games. Likes structured outdoor games and sports
Career school psychologists
Multi-Tiered Systems of Supports Leadership Team
Oversees Related Services Professional Development
Member of District Crisis Team
Provisional School Psychologists
Adaptive Physical Education Teachers
Member of Crisis Team
Secondary District Case Management
Multi-Tiered Systems of Supports Leadership Team
School Psychologist for Canyon Creek Elementary
Elementary District Case Management
Multi-Tiered Systems of Supports Leadership Team
School Psychology Internship Program and Licensure