Junior High

High School


Glossary header

Print Awareness

Print Awareness

Print Awareness is a child's earliest understanding that written language carries meaning. The foundation of all other literacy learning builds upon this knowledge.

Why header
Print awareness refers to a child's understanding of the nature and uses of print. A child's print awareness is closely associated with his or her word awareness or the ability to recognize words as distinct elements of oral and written communication.
What header
  • Book Awareness (Cover, how to hold, turn pages, left to right etc.)
  • Relationship between words and print
  • Relationship between spoken language and written words
  • Word boundaries


How header

Blending and Segmenting Words Awareness Routine

Phonological Awareness

Phonological Awareness

Phonological Awareness is the ability to recognize that words are made up of a variety of sound units.

Why header
Phonological awareness provides the foundation for phonics learning.  One part of phonological awareness is phonemic awareness.  Phonemic awareness is a strong predictor of a child's later success in reading.     
What header
  • Blending and Segmenting Syllables
  • Blending Onset Rime
  • Isolating First Sounds
  • Blending and Segmenting Phonemes
  • Manipulating Phonemes
How header
Blending and Segmenting Syllable Routine
Blending Onset Rime Routine
First Sound Routine

Blending and Segmenting Phonemes

Manipulating Phonemes

Phonics and Word Recognition

Phonics and Word Recognition

Phonics      •      Sight Words
"Phonics and Word Recognition" includes teaching students phonics and sight words. 
The ability to
access text allows students to read accurately in order to make meaning from what they read.
Why header
Readers and writers can focus their attention on meaning making when we teach them to:
  • Quickly and accurately recognize words and their meanings in text
  • Quickly and accurately produce words in writing
What header
  • Phonics
  • Sight Words
How header
Letter-a-Day Routine
Blending Routine
Sight Word Routine
Challenge Word Spelling Routine



Accuracy      •       Rate      •        Expression      •        Understanding 

Fluency is the ability to read with appropriate rate, accuracy, and expression to understand text.

Why header
Fluency is an indicator of comprehension.  Poor fluency is correlated with weak comprehension.     
What header
  • Accuracy
  • Expression/Phrasing
  • Rate
  • Fluency-building Strategies
How header
Fluency Strategies


Definition      •      Concept      •      Context
Vocabulary instruction helps students access text by creating knowledge of words and word meanings. Tier 1 words are common, basic words. Tier 2 words are sophisticated synonyms. Tier 3 words are specialized terms, specific to a content area.
Why header
Insufficient vocabulary is a primary cause of academic failure in 3rd - 12th grades (Baumann and Kameenui, 1991; Stanovich, 1986; Becker, 1977).  Teaching students 350 - 400 words each year may improve learning by as much as 10% to 30% (Stahl and Fairbanks, 1986; Beck, 2002). 
What header
  • Tier 2 and 3 words
  • 2 words a day/8-10 words a week
  • Word Learning Strategies
  • Word Play and Word Awareness
  • Read Widely
How header
Vocabulary Routine
Text Talk Lessons
Read Widely



Understand      •      Analyze      •      Transfer

Comprehension is the ability to create meaning from (understand) and analyze a single text or multiple texts.

Why header
Comprehension is defined as “intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between text and reader” (Harris & Hodges, 1995).

Guthrie et al, 2004, 2006 and Van Keer and Verhaeghe, 2005 found that instruction using multiple strategies can create more strategic readers and increases reading comprehension.  
What header

Understand, Analyze, Transfer

  • Questioning (asking and answering)
  • Summarizing
  • Text Structure (with graphic organizers)
  • Monitoring
How header
Text Dependent Questioning Sequence
QAR: Question/Answer Relationship
Close Reading Routine
Informational Text Structure Strategies
CEI: Claim/Evidence/Interpretation Strategy
Comparing Literature


 Knowledge       •      Communication      •      Product      •      Language

Ability to organize thinking and communicate ideas, opinions, feelings, and knowledge in written form.

Why header
0% of students in grades 4-12 are low-achieving writers (Persky et al, 2003).  Teaching...strategies for planning, revising, and editing their compositions has shown a dramatic effect on the quality of students' writing.
What header

Writing to Learn and Learning to Write

  • Knowledge/Thinking
  • Communication
  • Product (informative, opinion, narrative)
  • Language
How header
Modeled Writing               Stop, Think, and Write Techniques
Informative Writing           Challenge Word Spelling Strategy
Opinion Writing                 Just Ask It! Revision Strategy
Narrative Writing              Mentor Text Routine